About

Dave BlakeDavid Blake, M.Sc, F.S.A., C.C.I., is a retired police officer and ower of Blake Consulting & Training. He is currently a contract instructor with the California Training Institute facilitating their CA-POST certified courses entitled; Force Encounters Analysis & Human Factors, Threat and Error Management. He is an Adjunct Professor of Criminal Justice, a Police Academy Instructor, and a Force Options Simulator Instructor at a large regional training center. His policing experience includes positions in; SWAT, Field Training, Gangs, Narcotics, Supervision Media Relations, and Use of Force Training. Dave has instructor certifications in; Force Options Simulator, Firearms, DT, and Reality Based Training. He is a published author in several periodicals and journals to include a quarterly column with PoliceOne online magazine entitled; “The Science of Training”. Dave’s 8 year service in the USAF included deployments in support of Operations Restore Hope and Desert Storm. He holds a Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice Management and a Masters of Science in Psychology. He is a Certified Criminal Investigator with the American College of Forensic Examiners Institute and a Force Science Certified Analyst with the Force Science Institute ©.

Board of Advisors


Craig E. GeisLeading Human Factors Expert, Craig E. Geis, (LTC. US Army Ret.) MBA, MA, is Co-Founder of California Training Institute. Craig has extensive background in error and risk management and is a Certified Force Science Analyst. LTC. Geis was a career army pilot, developed the military’s Crew Resource Management (CRM) training program to address human error, and is a former instructor for the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, University of Maryland, and the University of San Francisco. He has served as an Associate Professor at the University of Southern California, providing instruction in numerous courses on Safety Management and Human Factors. Craig holds an M.A. in Psychology from Austin Peay State University, a B.A. in Management from C.W. Post College in New York, and an MBA in Management from Georgia Southern College.  At the time of his military retirement, Lt. Col. Geis was the US Army’s Lead Safety Specialist in Aviation Human Factors.


Joel Suss, Ph.D.,Joel Suss, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of Psychology (Human Factors) at Wichita State University, Kansas. His research focuses on human performance and cognition in complex, dynamic, and often stressful operational settings. He has conducted decision-making research with police officers, pilots, and wildland firefighters. His approach seeks to identify and define expertise in operational settings, understand the perceptual-cognitive basis for expertise and skilled performance, and design and validate solutions to mitigate error, accelerate training, and improve resilience. Joel has a keen interest in use-of-force training, firearms safety, defensive tactics, police use of body-worn cameras, and sustained attention tasks (e.g., monitoring multiple CCTV surveillance cameras, conducting a stakeout). He is often dismayed by the lack of scientific research that addresses issues that police trainers and administrators face on a daily basis. Therefore, he is committed to supporting law enforcement by conducting use-inspired research that applies scientific principles and theories to inform police training and operations.


Blair AlexanderBlair Alexander (Colonel US Army Ret.), M.B.A, is currently an Inspector with the Alameda County District Attorney’s Office and a contract instructor with the California Training Institute facilitating their CA-POST certified course entitled; Force Encounters Analysis. Blair retired as a Lieutenant from Oakland PD (CA), where he served for over 20 years holding positions as SWAT Tactical Commander & Entry Operator, Patrol Watch Commander & Supervisor, Violence Suppression Unit Commander, Internal Affairs Officer-Involved Shooting Investigator, Field Training Officer, and Departmental Range Master. Blair also retired as a Colonel (Infantry) from the US Army with 30 years of combined active & reserve service, including a deployment to Iraq as a member of the Civilian Police Assistance Training Team. He is a graduate of the US Military Academy at West Point, NY (BS – 81), Santa Clara University in CA (MBA – 92), and the US Army War College in PA (Masters of Strategic Studies – 05).


Laura A. ZimmermanLaura A. Zimmerman, Ph.D. is an experimental psychologist with specialization in law enforcement decision-making, practices, and training. She has spent over 15 years conducting research to characterize decision making during high-stakes critical incidents, with extensive experience working with law enforcement and military. She also specializes in investigative interview and interrogation research. Her focus is on developing realistic research and training scenarios and investigating real-world police practices in field settings. To gather research data, she has conducted extensive interviews, focus groups, surveys, and ride-alongs with local and federal law enforcement officers. In addition, she has taught a module on police decision making at the Force Science Institute Law Enforcement Certification Course and is a regular contributor to ILEETA’s Use of Force Journal. She is dedicated to contributing scientific findings to the development and refinement of evidence-based police practices. Email Laura at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


There is a fundamental need for law enforcement agencies to acknowledge human capabilities in policy, procedure, tactics, and training. This cultural shift enables law enforcement to fall in line with other high risk occupations such as the airline, transportation and medical industries. Recommendations for Human Factors applications in policing come from the International Association of Chiefs of Police, The Police Executive Research Forum, International Law Enforcement Educators and Trainers Association, the Law Enforcement Executive Forum, and the National Institute of Justice (to name a few!).

Latest Blog Post from Dave Blake

  • Human Factors on Trial

    Human Factors on Trial

    Dave Blake is the prevailing Human Factors / UOF expert in the Daniel Willis Murder Trial (Bastrop, Tx).

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  • Taser use restricted

    Taser use restricted

    The courts have once again restricted the use of the ECD (Taser) in regards to passive resistance...(read more)

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  • Police Use of Force Decision Making

    Police Use of Force Decision Making

    An article discussing current trends in evaluating police use of force. Decision making being the central topic...

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  • NY Times Attacks The Force Science Institute

    NY Times Attacks The Force Science Institute
    The New York Times recently published an article by Matt Apuzzo entitled, “Training Officers to Shoot First, and He Will Answer Questions Later”. The article’s title continues to vilify American Law Enforcement while the contents of the article attack Dr. William Lewinski and the Force Science Institute.

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  • Journalist Experiences Split Second UOF Decision Making Scenario

    Journalist Wearing A Badge
    All police officers are not perfect, a very small amount might even be downright bad. As in every occupation and the populace in general - there are some rotten eggs. However, unlike other occupations, Police are quick to purge rot pretty quickly.

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  • High Risk Traffic Stops

    How to improve officer training
    The problem with ever-increasing stress during critical incidents such as a HRTS is found in an associated decrease in critical thinking abilities. You’re behind that stolen Honda Civic from this morning’s roll call. The important information has been relayed to dispatch and cover units are en route.

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  • Kids & Replica Weapons

    How Many Kids Have to Die?
    On October 22, 2013, deputies from the Santa Rosa Sheriff’s department challenged an armed man walking in what has been described as a high crime area within the county. The man reportedly turned towards the Deputies while raising the barrel of a rifle.

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  • CTI's Force Encounters Analysis Course

    Force Encounters Analysis Course
    California Training Institute (CTI) has developed what may be the most important law enforcement course available to today; a dynamic, participant-centered course, providing the latest, in unbiased scientific evidence pertaining to officer involved use of force (UOF).

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